google.com, pub-8451861548774539, DIRECT, f08c47fec0942fa0 google.com, pub-5670822223999571, DIRECT, f08c47fec0942fa0 sharingseo - google.com, pub-8451861548774539, DIRECT, f08c47fec0942fa0

The Impact of COVID-19 on the Stock Market and Cryptocurrency in Pakistan

Keywords: Cryptocurrencies , digital currencies , cryptographic algorithms, secure method of exchange , money creation , transactions , mining , hal Fining , Bitcoin community, first person to receive bitcoin , predictive relationship , Dorian Nakamoto , uncertainty , stock market volatility , high frequency perspective , information beyond fundamentals. Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has … Read more

Capital structure:

Capital structure is the combination of the debt and equity capital that composite a firm’s financing its assets. Financing is referred to as a process of generating cash which can be used for acquisition of assets, current operations or any expected growth. Firms can use either debt or equity capital to finance their assets. Therefore, … Read more

AN OVERVIEW OF THE PAKISTAN STOCK MARKET

Long-term investors can expect profitable returns from the Pakistan Stock Exchange. The KSE 100 Index stocks at PSX offered excellent annual average return of 10.58% in the last 10 years to investors. Investors can purchase a range of blue chip stocks, bonds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and mutual funds on the Pakistan Stock Exchange. The Securities … Read more

Application segmentation marketing segmentation Targeting And positioning

Introduction: The advent of multimedia content has expanded the avenues for article marketing. Integrating visually appealing elements such as infographics, videos, or interactive features not only enhances the overall reader experience but also makes articles more shareable on social media platforms. In conclusion, marketing is the catalyst that propels articles from mere words on a … Read more

TheEffectofLeverage,LiquidityandWorkingCapitalTurnonProfitability

Acompanycanmaximizeitsprofitifthefinancialmanagerknowsthefactorsthathavemajorinfluenceonprofitability.Thecompanycandeterminestepstoovercomeproblemsandminimizethenegativeimpact.Therearemanyfactorsthataffectthecompanyprofitability.Factorscanbemeasuredbyusingfinancialratio,financialsuchascurrentcapitalturnover,currentratioandcurrentsalegrowth,companysizeanddebitratiocanbeusedtodeterminetheeffectofeachvariableoncompany’sprofitability. Profitabilitycanmeasurehowmuchgrowthacompanyearnintermofsale,assetsandprofitsforitsowncapital.Themeasureofsuccessofamanagercanbeseenfromtheabilitytocreateprofitability.Increasingprofitabilityisthemostimportanttaskforamanger.Managersareconsistentlyproportionofdebtisgreaterthanequity.Profitabilityratioisusedtoshowhowmuchprofitisderivedfromthecompanyperformance.Theformulaisasfollows: ROA=Earningsaftertax TotalAssets Leverageisastrategythatcompaniesusedtoincreaseassets.Itpaysshort-termandlong-termdebts.Theyusefixedassetstoincreasingcompanyincome.Theyalsousedtomeasurelevelofsolvency.Theuseofdebtthatistoohighwillindangerthecompanybecausethecompanywillenterintoextremeleveragethatiscompanytrappedinhighlevelofdebtandit’sdifficulttoreleasethedebtburden.Thereforethecompanymustbalancehowmuchdebtisworthtakingandfromwhichsourcescanbeusedtopayoffdebt.Leveragehasnosignificanteffectonprofitability.Theformulaisasfollows Debtofequityratio=TotalLiabilities Totalshareholder’sequity Tomeasuretheleverageofresearchersusingdebtofequityratio.DERistheratiothatillustratestheratioofdebtandequityincorporatefundingandshowtheabilityofthecompanyowncapitaltomeetsitsobligations. Liquidityshowthecompanyabilitytomeetsitfinancialobligations.Italsoshowtheabilityofshort-termobligationssuchasloans,staffwages,billsandtax.Theyshowpositiveeffectonprofitability.Forexample:whenahumantakeoutaloantopurchaseanassetorwiththehopeofgrowingtheirmoneyinfuture.Currentdebtispaymentobligationsinoneyearandanormaloperatingcycleinbusiness.Currentratioistheratiobetweentheamountofcurrentassetsandcurrentdebts.Hereistheformulausedtocalculatethecurrentratio: CurrentRatio=Currentassets Currentliabilities WorkingCapitalisthemoneyavailabletomeetyourcurrentobligations.Theexistenceofhighlevelofworkingcapitalturnoverindicatesthatthecompanyhasanopportunitytoachieveahighprofitgrowthinthefuture.Aratiothatmeasures,howefficientlyacompanyisusingitsworkingcapitaltosupportitssalesandgrowths.HereistheformulaofWorkingcapitalratio. WorkingCapitalturnover=Sales Currentassets–Currentliabilities Previousresearch: Previousresearchthatcansupportthisresearchisasfollows:Putranto[15]inhisresearchentitled”TheEffectofDiversification,Leverage,andInflationStrategiesontheProfitabilityofFood&BeverageCompanies”.Theresultsshowedthatthediversificationstrategyhadapositiveeffectoncompanyprofitability;leveragehadapositiveeffectoncompanyprofitabilitybutwasnotinaccordancewiththehypothesis,whileinflationdidnotaffectthecompany’sprofitability. WijayaandIsnani[16]intheirstudyentitled”TheEffectofWorkingCapitalEfficiency,Liquidity,andSolvencyontheProfitabilityofPharmaceuticalCompanies”.TheresultsshowedthattheWorkingCapitalTurnover(WCT),DebttoEquityRatio(DER)partiallyhadanegativeandnotsignificanteffectonReturnonAssets(ROA).CurrentRatio(CR)hasapositiveandsignificanteffectonReturnonAssets(ROA). YulianitaandIsynuwardhana[17]intheirstudyentitled”TheEffectofWorkingCapitalTurnover,Liquidity,andLeverageonProfitability(EmpiricalStudyofConsumerGoodsCompaniesListedontheIndonesiaStockExchangeforthe2015-2017Period)”.TheresultsshowedthatsimultaneouslyshowedWorkingCapitalTurnover(WCOT),Liquidity(CR),andLeverage(DER)significantlyinfluenceProfitability(ROA).Partially,WorkingCapitalTurnover(WCOT)hasasignificanteffectonprofitability(ROA),whileLiquidity(CR)andLeverage(DER)havenosignificanteffectonprofitability(ROA). Framework: Basedonthetheoreticalbasisandtheresultsofpreviousstudiesandtheproblemsthathavebeenraised,thenasabasisforformulatingahypothesis,thefollowingframeworkispresentedintheresearchmodelinthefollowingfigure:   HYPOTHESIS: Theresearchhypothesesproposedareasfollows:Ha1=WorkingCapitalTurnoveraffectsProfitability.Ha2=LiquidityaffectsProfitability.Ha3=Leverageaffectsprofitability. RESEARCHMETHODS:Typesofresearchthisresearchiscausalresearch.Thetypeofresearchusedinthisstudyiscasualassociativeresearch(causalassociativeresearch).AccordingtoSanusi[11],associative-causalresearchisresearchthatlooksforrelationshipsbetweentwoormorevariables.Thepurposeofassociativeresearchistolookforrelationshipsbetweenonevariableandanother. DefinitionofVariableOperations: Thevariablesusedinthisstudyconsistedofthedependentvariableandtheindependentvariable.OperationalresearchvariablesontheEffectsofWorkingCapitalTurnover,Liquidity,andLeverageonProfitabilitycanbesummarizedintable1.1. Table-1.1:OperationalizationofVariables TypesofVariables OperationalDefinition Formula Scale Dependent Profitability Oneindicatortoassessthelevelofeffectivenessofmanagementperformanceinrunningacompanybylookingatthelevelofbenefitsobtained ROA Ratio Independent WorkingCapitalturnover Workingcapitalisalwaysoperatingwithinthecompanyaslongasthecompanyconcernedisinbusiness Sales Currentassets-CurrentLiabilities Ratio Liquidity Theratiousedtomeasurethecompany’sabilitytomeetshort-termobligationsthatmustbemeet CurrentRatio Ratio Leverage Theratiousedtomeasurehowmuchthecompanyisfinancedwithdebt DebttoEquityratio Ratio  

Impact of electronic Internal auditing and digital transformation Based on IT to reduce auditing risk

Impact of electronic Internal auditing and digital transformation Based on IT to reduce auditing risk Introduction : The Middle Eastern government Such as Iraq have struggled to reduce corruption, safeguard integrity and establish effective institutions for running country’s affairs. The (OECD) create the responsible government to reduce risk management and control internal audit operations. According … Read more

Internal audit functions and sustainability audits:Insights from manufacturing firms

sharingseo INTRODUCTION:A Company’s value system and ethical business practices are the foundation for corporate sustainability(DeSimone et al., 2021). According to research (Alsayegh et al., 2020; Vieira & Radonjič, 2020), firmsparticipate in sustainability activities and reporting. According to (DeSimone et al., 2021) , Sustainabilityreporting is becoming more and more important to firm global reporting procedures.RESEARCH ARTICLEIn … Read more

COVID-19 Pandemic, Internal AuditFunction and Audit Report Lag:Evidence from Emerging economy

sharingseo Abstract:This article delves into the intricate relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and theinternal audit function within organizations. Through a comprehensive analysis, it explores howthe unprecedented challenges posed by the global health crisis have influenced the efficiencyand effectiveness of internal audit processes. A key focus is placed on the audit report lag – thetime it … Read more

Determinants of Fintech and Bigtech lending:the role of financial inclusion and financial development In PAKISTAN

sharingseo Introduction This study investigates the determinants of Fintech and Bigtech lending. Financial Inclusion is considered a key enabler of economic development and is featured as a target in 8 of the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN). Increasing evidence suggests that inclusion of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and individuals … Read more

THE EFFECT OF CAPITAL STRUCTURE ONPROFITABILITY IN ANIMAL FEED SUB-SECTORCOMPANIES LISTED ON THE INDONESIA STOCKEXCHANGE.

sharingseo Keys words.Capital structure, profit, Indonesian stock exchange.Introduction.The capital structure is defined as the mix of debt and equity thatthe firm uses in its operation. The capital structure of the firm isa mixture of different securities. In general, firms can chooseamong many alternative capital structures. For example, firmscan arrange lease financing use warrants issue convertiblebonds, … Read more

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